About 50 young people have clashed with riot police in Edinburgh with fireworks and petrol bombs being thrown directly at officers.
Video footage from the Niddrie area of the city showed officers in riot gear standing in a line while youths threw explosives at their feet.
Police Scotland also responded to disturbances in Glasgow and Dundee.
The force said eight officers suffered minor injuries on a night of “unprecedented levels of violence”.
Meanwhile, the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service (SFRS) said nine crews were attacked during an eight-hour period across the country.
In Niddrie, police were called to the Hay Avenue area at 16:40 GMT after reports of “antisocial use of fireworks”.
A statement said officers were pursuing a number of individuals who they believe were providing youths with fireworks and petrol bombs to target police.
Images posted on social media showed bystanders watching the violence.
The videos showed officers being bombarded with explosives while teenagers gathered on a green, with some filming it.
About 50 youths within a larger group of youths and adults were responsible for directing fireworks at vehicles and buildings before their behaviour escalated when officers arrived, the police said.
The force said while only a small number of arrests had been made on the night, as a result of the “significant challenges” officers faced, substantial evidence had been gathered and it was anticipated further arrests would take place in the coming days.
It added two police vehicles were damaged in the Beauly Square area of Dundee, at about 18:55, after being struck with bricks.
Eight officers sustained minor injuries in Edinburgh and Glasgow.
Assistant Chief Constable Tim Mairs, gold commander of Operation Moonbeam, said a minority of individuals had been responsible for an “unacceptable and frankly, disgusting level of disorder that left communities alarmed and police officers injured”.